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Introduction to Reform Bahai Faith, A Talk Presented to the Troy Interfaith Group
YouTube, 26 minutes


Attend a Fireside







Excerpts from the forthcoming A Global Testament of Faith: Prayers and Meditations of Humankind.

Scheduled for publication by the Reform Bahai Press in early fall, 2012. Editor, Frederick Glaysher




Indigenous Traditions

Prayer to the Great Spirit

Oh, Great Spirit, whose voice I hear in the wind, Whose breath gives life to all the world.

Hear me; I need your strength and wisdom. Let me walk in beauty, and make my eyes ever behold the red and purple sunset.

Make my hands respect the things you have made and my ears sharp to hear your voice.

Make me wise so that I may understand the things you have taught my people.

Help me to remain calm and strong in the face of all that comes towards me.

Let me learn the lessons you have hidden in every leaf and rock.

Help me seek pure thoughts and act with the intention of helping others.

Help me find compassion without empathy overwhelming me.

I seek strength, not to be greater than my brother, but to fight my greatest enemy, Myself.

Make me always ready to come to you with clean hands and straight eyes. So when life fades, as the fading sunset, my spirit may come to you without shame.

Chief Yellow Lark, Lakota 1887



Upanishads, tr. Swami Paramananda


The wise, who by means of the highest meditation on the Self
knows the Ancient One, difficult to perceive, seated in the
innermost recess, hidden in the cave of the heart, dwelling in
the depth of inner being, he who knows that One as God, is
liberated from the fetters of joy and sorrow. 2.12

This Self is never born, nor does It die. It did not spring from
anything, nor did anything spring from It. This Ancient One is
unborn, eternal, everlasting. It is not slain even though the
body is slain. 2.18

If the slayer thinks that he slays, or if the slain thinks that
he is slain, both of these know not. For It neither slays nor is
It slain. 2.19

The Self is subtler than the subtle, greater than the great; It
dwells in the heart of each living being. He who is free from
desire and free from grief, with mind and senses tranquil,
beholds the glory of the Atman. 2.20

The wise who know the Self, bodiless, seated within perishable
bodies, great and all- pervading, grieve not. 2.22

This Self cannot be attained by study of the Scriptures, nor by
intellectual perception, nor by frequent hearing of It; He whom
the Self chooses, by him alone is It attained. To him the Self
reveals Its true nature. 2.23

He who has not turned away from evil conduct, whose senses are
uncontrolled, who is not tranquil, whose mind is not at rest, he
can never attain this Atman even by knowledge. 2.24

The Self-existent created the senses out-going; for this reason
man sees the external, but not the inner Atman (Self). Some wise
man, however, desiring immortality, with eyes turned away from
the external sees the Atman within. 4.1

O Gautama Nachiketas, as pure water poured into pure water
becomes one, so also is it with the Self of an illumined Knower,
he becomes one with the Supreme. 4.15

The city of the Unborn, whose knowledge is unchanging, has eleven
gates. Thinking on Him, man grieves no more; and being freed
from ignorance, he attains liberation. This verily is That. 5.1

He is the sun dwelling in the bright heaven; He is the air
dwelling in space; He is the fire burning on the altar; He is the
guest dwelling in the house. He dwells in man. He dwells in
those greater than man. He dwells in sacrifice. He dwells in
the ether. He is all that is born in water, all that is born
in earth, all that is born in sacrifice, all that is born on
mountains. He is the True and the Great. 5.2

As the sun, the eye of the whole world, is not defiled by
external impurities seen by the eyes, thus the one inner Self of
all living beings is not defiled by the misery of the world,
being outside it. 5.11

There is one ruler, the Self of all living beings, who makes the
one form manifold; the wise who perceive Him seated within their
Self, to them belongs eternal bliss, not to others. 5.12

This ancient Aswattha tree has its root above and branches below.
That is pure, That is Brahman, That alone is called the Immortal.
All the worlds rest in That. None goes beyond That. This verily
is That. 6.1

His form is not to be seen. No one can see Him with the eye. He
is perceived by the heart, by the intellect and by the mind.
They who know this become immortal. 6.9

When the five organs of perception become still, together with
the mind, and the intellect ceases to be active: that is called
the highest state. 6.10

When all desires dwelling in the heart cease, then the mortal
becomes immortal and attains Brahman here. 6.14

When all the ties of the heart are cut asunder here, then the
mortal becomes immortal. Such is the teaching. 6.15

Thus Nachiketas, having acquired this wisdom taught by Yama, the Ruler of Death, together with all the rules of Yoga, became free from
impurity and death and attained Brahman the Supreme. So also
will it be with another who likewise knows the nature of the
Self. 6.18


The Bhagavad-Gita, tr. Sir Edwin Arnold. Chapter XI, 1900.

This, for my soul's peace, have I heard from Thee,
The unfolding of the Mystery Supreme
Named Adhyatman; comprehending which,
My darkness is dispelled; for now I know--
O Lotus-eyed!--whence is the birth of men,
And whence their death, and what the majesties
Of Thine immortal rule. Fain would I see,
As thou Thyself declar'st it, Sovereign Lord!
The likeness of that glory of Thy Form
Wholly revealed. O Thou Divinest One!
If this can be, if I may bear the sight,
Make Thyself visible, Lord of all prayers!
Show me Thy very self, the Eternal God!

Gaze, then, thou Son of Pritha! I manifest for thee
Those hundred thousand thousand shapes that clothe my Mystery:
I show thee all my semblances, infinite, rich, divine,
My changeful hues, my countless forms. See! in this face of mine,
Adityas, Vasus, Rudras, Aswins, and Maruts; see
Wonders unnumbered, Indian Prince! revealed to none save thee.
Behold! this is the Universe!--Look! what is live and dead
I gather all in one--in Me! Gaze, as thy lips have said,
On GOD ETERNAL, VERY GOD! See Me! see what thou prayest!

Thou canst not!--nor, with human eyes, Arjuna! ever mayest!
Therefore I give thee sense divine. Have other eyes, new light!
And, look! This is My glory, unveiled to mortal sight!

Then, O King! the God, so saying,
Stood, to Pritha's Son displaying
All the splendour, wonder, dread
Of His vast Almighty-head.
Out of countless eyes beholding,
Out of countless mouths commanding,
Countless mystic forms enfolding
In one Form: supremely standing
Countless radiant glories wearing,
Countless heavenly weapons bearing,
Crowned with garlands of star-clusters,
Robed in garb of woven lustres,
Breathing from His perfect Presence
Breaths of every subtle essence
Of all heavenly odours; shedding
Blinding brilliance; overspreading--
Boundless, beautiful--all spaces
With His all-regarding faces;
So He showed! If there should rise
Suddenly within the skies
Sunburst of a thousand suns
Flooding earth with beams undeemed-of,
Then might be that Holy One's
Majesty and radiance dreamed of!

So did Pandu's Son behold
All this universe enfold
All its huge diversity
Into one vast shape, and be
Visible, and viewed, and blended
In one Body--subtle, splendid,
Nameless--th' All-comprehending
God of Gods, the Never-Ending

But, sore amazed,
Thrilled, o'erfilled, dazzled, and dazed,
Arjuna knelt; and bowed his head,
And clasped his palms; and cried, and said:

Yea! I have seen! I see!
Lord! all is wrapped in Thee!
The gods are in Thy glorious frame! the creatures
Of earth, and heaven, and hell
In Thy Divine form dwell,
And in Thy countenance shine all the features

Of Brahma, sitting lone
Upon His lotus-throne;
Of saints and sages, and the serpent races
Ananta, Vasuki;
Yea! mightiest Lord! I see
Thy thousand thousand arms, and breasts, and faces,
And eyes,--on every side
Perfect, diversified;
And nowhere end of Thee, nowhere beginning,
Nowhere a centre! Shifts--
Wherever soul's gaze lifts--
Thy central Self, all-wielding, and all-winning!

Infinite King! I see
The anadem on Thee,
The club, the shell, the discus; see Thee burning
In beams insufferable,
Lighting earth, heaven, and hell
With brilliance blazing, glowing, flashing; turning

Darkness to dazzling day,
Look I whichever way;
Ah, Lord! I worship Thee, the Undivided,
The Uttermost of thought,
The Treasure-Palace wrought
To hold the wealth of the worlds; the Shield provided

To shelter Virtue's laws;
The Fount whence Life's stream draws
All waters of all rivers of all being:
The One Unborn, Unending:
Unchanging and Unblending!
With might and majesty, past thought, past seeing!

Silver of moon and gold
Of sun are glories rolled
From Thy great eyes; Thy visage, beaming tender
Throughout the stars and skies,
Doth to warm life surprise
Thy Universe. The worlds are filled with wonder

Of Thy perfections! Space
Star-sprinkled, and void place
From pole to pole of the Blue, from bound to bound,
Hath Thee in every spot,
Thee, Thee!--Where Thou art not,
O Holy, Marvellous Form! is nowhere found!

O Mystic, Awful One!
At sight of Thee, made known,
The Three Worlds quake; the lower gods draw nigh Thee;
They fold their palms, and bow
Body, and breast, and brow,
And, whispering worship, laud and magnify Thee!

Rishis and Siddhas cry
"Hail! Highest Majesty!"
From sage and singer breaks the hymn of glory
In dulcet harmony,
Sounding the praise of Thee;
While countless companies take up the story,

Rudras, who ride the storms,
Th' Adityas' shining forms,
Vasus and Sadhyas, Viswas, Ushmapas;
Maruts, and those great Twins
The heavenly, fair, Aswins,
Gandharvas, Rakshasas, Siddhas, and Asuras,--

These see Thee, and revere
In sudden-stricken fear;
Yea! the Worlds,--seeing Thee with form stupendous,
With faces manifold,
With eyes which all behold,
Unnumbered eyes, vast arms, members tremendous,

Flanks, lit with sun and star,
Feet planted near and far,
Tushes of terror, mouths wrathful and tender;--
The Three wide Worlds before Thee
Adore, as I adore Thee,
Quake, as I quake, to witness so much splendour!

I mark Thee strike the skies
With front, in wondrous wise
Huge, rainbow-painted, glittering; and thy mouth
Opened, and orbs which see
All things, whatever be
In all Thy worlds, east, west, and north and south.

O Eyes of God! O Head!
My strength of soul is fled,
Gone is heart's force, rebuked is mind's desire!
When I behold Thee so,
With awful brows a-glow,
With burning glance, and lips lighted by fire

Fierce as those flames which shall
Consume, at close of all,
Earth, Heaven! Ah me! I see no Earth and Heaven!
Thee, Lord of Lords! I see,
Thee only-only Thee!
Now let Thy mercy unto me be given,

Thou Refuge of the World!
Lo! to the cavern hurled
Of Thy wide-opened throat, and lips white-tushed,
I see our noblest ones,
Great Dhritarashtra's sons,
Bhishma, Drona, and Karna, caught and crushed!

The Kings and Chiefs drawn in,
That gaping gorge within;
The best of both these armies torn and riven!
Between Thy jaws they lie
Mangled full bloodily,
Ground into dust and death! Like streams down-driven

With helpless haste, which go
In headlong furious flow
Straight to the gulfing deeps of th' unfilled ocean,
So to that flaming cave
Those heroes great and brave
Pour, in unending streams, with helpless motion!

Like moths which in the night
Flutter towards a light,
Drawn to their fiery doom, flying and dying,
So to their death still throng,
Blind, dazzled, borne along
Ceaselessly, all those multitudes, wild flying!

Thou, that hast fashioned men,
Devourest them again,
One with another, great and small, alike!
The creatures whom Thou mak'st,
With flaming jaws Thou tak'st,
Lapping them up! Lord God! Thy terrors strike

From end to end of earth,
Filling life full, from birth
To death, with deadly, burning, lurid dread!
Ah, Vishnu! make me know
Why is Thy visage so?
Who art Thou, feasting thus upon Thy dead?

Who? awful Deity!
I bow myself to Thee,
Namostu Te, Devavara! Prasid!
O Mightiest Lord! rehearse
Why hast Thou face so fierce?
Whence doth this aspect horrible proceed?

Thou seest Me as Time who kills,
Time who brings all to doom,
The Slayer Time, Ancient of Days, come hither to consume;
Excepting thee, of all these hosts of hostile chiefs arrayed,
There stands not one shall leave alive the battlefield! Dismayed
No longer be! Arise! obtain renown! destroy thy foes!
Fight for the kingdom waiting thee when thou hast vanquished those.
By Me they fall--not thee! the stroke of death is dealt them now,
Even as they show thus gallantly; My instrument art thou!
Strike, strong-armed Prince, at Drona! at Bhishma strike! deal death
On Karna, Jyadratha; stay all their warlike breath!
'Tis I who bid them perish! Thou wilt but slay the slain;
Fight! they must fall, and thou must live, victor upon this plain!

Hearing mighty Keshav's word,
Tremblingly that helmed Lord
Clasped his lifted palms, and--praying
Grace of Krishna--stood there, saying,
With bowed brow and accents broken,
These words, timorously spoken:

Worthily, Lord of Might!
The whole world hath delight
In Thy surpassing power, obeying Thee;
The Rakshasas, in dread
At sight of Thee, are sped
To all four quarters; and the company

Of Siddhas sound Thy name.
How should they not proclaim
Thy Majesties, Divinest, Mightiest?
Thou Brahm, than Brahma greater!
Thou Infinite Creator!
Thou God of gods, Life's Dwelling-place and Rest!

Thou, of all souls the Soul!
The Comprehending Whole!
Of being formed, and formless being the Framer;
O Utmost One! O Lord!
Older than eld, Who stored
The worlds with wealth of life! O Treasure-Claimer,

Who wottest all, and art
Wisdom Thyself! O Part
In all, and All; for all from Thee have risen
Numberless now I see
The aspects are of Thee!
Vayu Thou art, and He who keeps the prison

Of Narak, Yama dark;
And Agni's shining spark;
Varuna's waves are Thy waves. Moon and starlight
Are Thine! Prajapati
Art Thou, and 'tis to Thee
They knelt in worshipping the old world's far light,

The first of mortal men.
Again, Thou God! again
A thousand thousand times be magnified!
Honour and worship be--
Glory and praise,--to Thee
Namo, Namaste, cried on every side;

Cried here, above, below,
Uttered when Thou dost go,
Uttered where Thou dost come! Namo! we call;
Namostu! God adored!
Namostu! Nameless Lord!
Hail to Thee! Praise to Thee! Thou One in all;

For Thou art All! Yea, Thou!
Ah! if in anger now
Thou shouldst remember I did think Thee Friend,
Speaking with easy speech,
As men use each to each;
Did call Thee "Krishna," "Prince," nor comprehend

Thy hidden majesty,
The might, the awe of Thee;
Did, in my heedlessness, or in my love,
On journey, or in jest,
Or when we lay at rest,
Sitting at council, straying in the grove,

Alone, or in the throng,
Do Thee, most Holy! wrong,
Be Thy grace granted for that witless sin!
For Thou art, now I know,
Father of all below,
Of all above, of all the worlds within

Guru of Gurus; more
To reverence and adore
Than all which is adorable and high!
How, in the wide worlds three
Should any equal be?
Should any other share Thy Majesty?

Therefore, with body bent
And reverent intent,
I praise, and serve, and seek Thee, asking grace.
As father to a son,
As friend to friend, as one
Who loveth to his lover, turn Thy face

In gentleness on me!
Good is it I did see
This unknown marvel of Thy Form! But fear
Mingles with joy! Retake,
Dear Lord! for pity's sake
Thine earthly shape, which earthly eyes may bear!

Be merciful, and show
The visage that I know;
Let me regard Thee, as of yore, arrayed
With disc and forehead-gem,
With mace and anadem,
Thou that sustainest all things! Undismayed

Let me once more behold
The form I loved of old,
Thou of the thousand arms and countless eyes!
This frightened heart is fain
To see restored again
My Charioteer, in Krishna's kind disguise.

Yea! thou hast seen, Arjuna! because I loved thee well,
The secret countenance of Me, revealed by mystic spell,
Shining, and wonderful, and vast, majestic, manifold,
Which none save thou in all the years had favour to behold;
For not by Vedas cometh this, nor sacrifice, nor alms,
Nor works well-done, nor penance long, nor prayers, nor chaunted psalms,
That mortal eyes should bear to view the Immortal Soul unclad,
Prince of the Kurus! This was kept for thee alone! Be glad!
Let no more trouble shake thy heart, because thine eyes have seen
My terror with My glory. As I before have been
So will I be again for thee; with lightened heart behold!
Once more I am thy Krishna, the form thou knew'st of old!

These words to Arjuna spake
Vasudev, and straight did take
Back again the semblance dear
Of the well-loved charioteer;
Peace and joy it did restore
When the Prince beheld once more
Mighty BRAHMA's form and face
Clothed in Krishna's gentle grace.

Now that I see come back, Janardana!
This friendly human frame, my mind can think
Calm thoughts once more; my heart beats still again!

Yea! it was wonderful and terrible
To view me as thou didst, dear Prince! The gods
Dread and desire continually to view!
Yet not by Vedas, nor from sacrifice,
Nor penance, nor gift-giving, nor with prayer
Shall any so behold, as thou hast seen!
Only by fullest service, perfect faith,
And uttermost surrender am I known
And seen, and entered into, Indian Prince!
Who doeth all for Me; who findeth Me
In all; adoreth always; loveth all
Which I have made, and Me, for Love's sole end
That man, Arjuna! unto Me doth wend.





Dhammapada, Tr. F. Max Muller

2. All that we are is the result of what we have thought: it is
founded on our thoughts, it is made up of our thoughts. If a man speaks or acts with a pure thought, happiness follows him, like a shadow that never leaves him.

24. If an earnest person has roused himself, if he is not forgetful, if his deeds are pure, if he acts with consideration, if he restrains himself, and lives according to law—then his glory will increase.

25. By rousing himself, by earnestness, by restraint and control, the wise man may make for himself an island which no flood can overwhelm.

49. As the bee collects nectar and departs without injuring the
flower, or its colour or scent, so let a sage dwell in his village.

50. Not the perversities of others, not their sins of commission or omission, but his own misdeeds and negligences should a sage take notice of.

96. His thought is quiet, quiet are his word and deed, when he has obtained freedom by true knowledge, when he has thus become a quiet man.

109. He who always greets and constantly reveres the aged, four things will increase to him, namely, life, beauty, happiness, power.

122. Let no man think lightly of good, saying in his heart, It will
not come nigh unto me. Even by the falling of water-drops a water-pot is filled; the wise man becomes full of good, even if he gather it little by little.

151. The brilliant chariots of kings are destroyed, the body also
approaches destruction, but the virtue of good people never approaches destruction—thus do the good say to the good.

160. Self is the lord of self, who else could be the lord? With self
well subdued, a man finds a lord such as few can find.

190. He who takes refuge with Buddha, the Dharma or Law, and the Sangha or Church; he who, with clear understanding, sees the four holy truths:

191. Namely, pain, the origin of pain, the destruction of pain, and the eightfold holy way that leads to the quieting of pain;

192. That is the safe refuge, that is the best refuge; having gone to that refuge, a man is delivered from all pain.

239. Let a wise man blow off the impurities of his self, as a smith blows off the impurities of silver one by one, little by little, and from time to time.

258. A man is not learned because he talks much; he who is patient, free from hatred and fear, he is called learned.

261. He in whom there is truth, virtue, love, restraint, moderation, he who is free from impurity and is wise, he is called an elder.

273. The best of ways is the eightfold; the best of truths the four words; the best of virtues passionlessness; the best of men he who has eyes to see.

285. Cut out the love of self, like an autumn lotus, with thy hand! Cherish the road of peace. Nirvana has been shown by Sugata Buddha.

327. Be not thoughtless, watch your thoughts! Draw yourself out of the evil way, like an elephant sunk in mud.

354. The gift of the law exceeds all gifts; the sweetness of the law exceeds all sweetness; the delight in the law exceeds all delights; the extinction of thirst overcomes all pain.


Buddhist Psalms, Shinran Shonin. Tr. S. Yamabe and L. Adams Beck

2. Seek refuge in the True Illumination! For the light of His Wisdom
is infinite.

In all the worlds there is nothing upon which His light shines not.

3. Take refuge in the Light universal.

As the Light of His deliverance is boundless, he who is within it is
freed from the lie of affirmation or denial.

4. Seek refuge in That which is beyond understanding,

For His glory is all-embracing as the air. It shineth and pierceth
all things, and there is nothing hid from the light thereof.

5. Take refuge in the ultimate Strength, for His pure radiance is
above all things. He who perceiveth this Light is set free from the
fetters of Karma.

6. Seek refuge in the World-Honoured.

Since His glorious radiance is above all He is called the Buddha of
Divine Light. And by Him is the darkness of the three worlds

10. His glory shineth for ever and ever. Therefore is He called the
Buddha of Everlasting Light.

13. Take refuge in Him who is Holiest of Holy. Sun and moon are
lost in the ocean of His splendour. Therefore is He named that
Infinite in whose radiance Sun and Moon are darkened. Before whose
Divine Power even that Buddha made flesh in India himself faltereth
in ascribing praise to the Majesty of His true glory.

136. When we shall attain, unto the Promised Land, which is that
Nirvana past all understanding, there shall we labour abundantly for
the salvation of all living things. For so the Sutra teaches us in
these words: "A heart that inclineth to the succour of others."

148. He who believeth that the Sole Vehicle of the Divine Promise,
most perfect, most mighty, receiveth within itself the Greatest of
Sinners, and this because it is its chief will so to do, will receive the depth of this essential teachingnamely, that before the eyes of the Instructed, illusion and wisdom are in their Essence One.

251. In these sinful days that are called the representative and
last times all the teachings of the Lord Buddha, the Sakiya-Muni
have vanished away, but the Divine Promise of the Buddha of Infinite
Light, shining greatly over the world, prosperously leads mankind
unto the Eternal Kingdom.

253. The noble mind that shall attain unto wisdom in the doctrine of
the Pure Land is the mind that fain would become Buddha, and it is
named: "The mind that shall save men who suffer."

254. The mind that shall save men is that mind given by the high
promise of the Blessed One. Whoso attaineth unto the faith He
giveth shall be lord of the great Nirvana.

255. Whoso attaineth unto the mind that would fain become Buddha,
having sought refuge in the gift of the Blessed One, hath no term in
his own gift of welfare to mankind, having for ever laid down all

256. According to the all-seeing promise of the Blessed One when the
water of the faith He giveth entereth the soul, illusion passeth
straight-way into wisdom through the virtue of that true land of the
Divine Promise.

257. That man who trusteth in the two gifts granted by the Buddha of
Infinite Light, is raised up into the sphere of the Lesser
Enlightenment, and thence hath he the heart that dwelleth always on
the perfection of the Blessed One.

258. He that attaineth unto the faith that is true gift of the
promise of wisdom from the Blessed One, cometh unto the sphere of
the Lesser Enlightenment, for he is embraced in the arms of the
spiritual light that is of the Father Eternal.

259. Fifty-six thousand and seventy years shall pass before the
Bodhisattva that is Maitreya shall attain unto the Perfected
Wisdom. But whoso embraceth the true faith shall at this very time
be lord of the great Enlightenment.

280. Whoso believeth the marvellous wisdom of that Blessed One,
shall be joined unto them that return no more unto birth and
death. And when, possessed of excelling knowledge, such a man is
born into Paradise, soon shall he attain unto the Perfected Wisdom.

281. It is the sole way unto the Promised Land that man should
believe the wisdom that is beyond human knowledge, of the
Enlightened One. Yet it is of all hard things hardest to attain unto
the Faith, the true way that leadeth to Paradise.

290. In India, in China, and the land of Japan, may the many
teachers of the doctrine of the Land of Purity, with compassion and
tender acceptance, persuade mankind to strive unto the true faith
that they may be joined unto those that return no more unto birth
and death.

340. Though sin hath no substance in itself, and is but the shadow
of our illusion, and soul is in itself pure, yet in all this world is there no sincere man.






God said to Moses, "I AM WHO I AM." And he said, "Say this to the people of Israel, `I AM has sent me to you.'" God also said to Moses, "Say this to the people of Israel, `The LORD, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has sent me to you': this is my name for ever, and thus I am to be remembered throughout all generations." Exodus, 3.14-15

And God spoke all these words, saying, "I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.
"You shall have no other gods before me.
"You shall not make for yourself a graven image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth;
you shall not bow down to them or serve them; for I the LORD your God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children to the third and the fourth generation of those who hate me,
but showing steadfast love to thousands of those who love me and keep my commandments.
"You shall not take the name of the LORD your God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless who takes his name in vain.
"Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days you shall labor, and do all your work; but the seventh day is a sabbath to the LORD your God; in it you shall not do any work, you, or your son, or your daughter, your manservant, or your maidservant, or your cattle, or the sojourner who is within your gates; for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested the seventh day; therefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day and hallowed it.
"Honor your father and your mother, that your days may be long in the land which the LORD your God gives you.
"You shall not kill.
"You shall not commit adultery.
"You shall not steal.
"You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor.
"You shall not covet your neighbor's house; you shall not covet your neighbor's wife, or his manservant, or his maidservant, or his ox, or his ass, or anything that is your neighbor's." Exodus, 20.1-17

"Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God is one LORD; and you shall love the LORD your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your might. And these words which I command you this day shall be upon your heart; and you shall teach them diligently to your children, and shall talk of them when you sit in your house, and when you walk by the way, and when you lie down, and when you rise." Deuteronomy, 6.4-7




[1] Moreover the LORD answered Job, and said,
[2] Shall he that contendeth with the Almighty instruct him? he that reproveth God, let him answer it.
[3] Then Job answered the LORD, and said,
[4] Behold, I am vile; what shall I answer thee? I will lay mine hand upon my mouth.
[5] Once have I spoken; but I will not answer: yea, twice; but I will proceed no further.
[6] Then answered the LORD unto Job out of the whirlwind, and said,
[7] Gird up thy loins now like a man: I will demand of thee, and declare thou unto me.
[8] Wilt thou also disannul my judgment? wilt thou condemn me, that thou mayest be righteous?
[9] Hast thou an arm like God? or canst thou thunder with a voice like him?
[10] Deck thyself now with majesty and excellency; and array thyself with glory and beauty.
[11] Cast abroad the rage of thy wrath: and behold every one that is proud, and abase him.
[12] Look on every one that is proud, and bring him low; and tread down the wicked in their place.
[13] Hide them in the dust together; and bind their faces in secret.
[14] Then will I also confess unto thee that thine own right hand can save thee.
[15] Behold now behemoth, which I made with thee; he eateth grass as an ox.
[16] Lo now, his strength is in his loins, and his force is in the navel of his belly.
[17] He moveth his tail like a cedar: the sinews of his stones are wrapped together.
[18] His bones are as strong pieces of brass; his bones are like bars of iron.
[19] He is the chief of the ways of God: he that made him can make his sword to approach unto him.
[20] Surely the mountains bring him forth food, where all the beasts of the field play.
[21] He lieth under the shady trees, in the covert of the reed, and fens.
[22] The shady trees cover him with their shadow; the willows of the brook compass him about.
[23] Behold, he drinketh up a river, and hasteth not: he trusteth that he can draw up Jordan into his mouth.
[24] He taketh it with his eyes: his nose pierceth through snares.


[1] Canst thou draw out leviathan with an hook? or his tongue with a cord which thou lettest down?
[2] Canst thou put an hook into his nose? or bore his jaw through with a thorn?
[3] Will he make many supplications unto thee? will he speak soft words unto thee?
[4] Will he make a covenant with thee? wilt thou take him for a servant for ever?
[5] Wilt thou play with him as with a bird? or wilt thou bind him for thy maidens?
[6] Shall the companions make a banquet of him? shall they part him among the merchants?
[7] Canst thou fill his skin with barbed iron? or his head with fish spears?
[8] Lay thine hand upon him, remember the battle, do no more.
[9] Behold, the hope of him is in vain: shall not one be cast down even at the sight of him?
[10] None is so fierce that dare stir him up: who then is able to stand before me?
[11] Who hath prevented me, that I should repay him? whatsoever is under the whole heaven is mine.
[12] I will not conceal his parts, nor his power, nor his comely proportion.
[13] Who can discover the face of his garment? or who can come to him with his double bridle?
[14] Who can open the doors of his face? his teeth are terrible round about.
[15] His scales are his pride, shut up together as with a close seal.
[16] One is so near to another, that no air can come between them.
[17] They are joined one to another, they stick together, that they cannot be sundered.
[18] By his neesings a light doth shine, and his eyes are like the eyelids of the morning.
[19] Out of his mouth go burning lamps, and sparks of fire leap out.
[20] Out of his nostrils goeth smoke, as out of a seething pot or caldron.
[21] His breath kindleth coals, and a flame goeth out of his mouth.
[22] In his neck remaineth strength, and sorrow is turned into joy before him.
[23] The flakes of his flesh are joined together: they are firm in themselves; they cannot be moved.
[24] His heart is as firm as a stone; yea, as hard as a piece of the nether millstone.
[25] When he raiseth up himself, the mighty are afraid: by reason of breakings they purify themselves.
[26] The sword of him that layeth at him cannot hold: the spear, the dart, nor the habergeon.
[27] He esteemeth iron as straw, and brass as rotten wood.
[28] The arrow cannot make him flee: slingstones are turned with him into stubble.
[29] Darts are counted as stubble: he laugheth at the shaking of a spear.
[30] Sharp stones are under him: he spreadeth sharp pointed things upon the mire.
[31] He maketh the deep to boil like a pot: he maketh the sea like a pot of ointment.
[32] He maketh a path to shine after him; one would think the deep to be hoary.
[33] Upon earth there is not his like, who is made without fear.
[34] He beholdeth all high things: he is a king over all the children of pride.


[1] Then Job answered the LORD, and said,
[2] I know that thou canst do every thing, and that no thought can be withholden from thee.
[3] Who is he that hideth counsel without knowledge? therefore have I uttered that I understood not; things too wonderful for me, which I knew not.
[4] Hear, I beseech thee, and I will speak: I will demand of thee, and declare thou unto me.
[5] I have heard of thee by the hearing of the ear: but now mine eye seeth thee.
[6] Wherefore I abhor myself, and repent in dust and ashes.
[7] And it was so, that after the LORD had spoken these words unto Job, the LORD said to Eliphaz the Temanite, My wrath is kindled against thee, and against thy two friends: for ye have not spoken of me the thing that is right, as my servant Job hath.
[8] Therefore take unto you now seven bullocks and seven rams, and go to my servant Job, and offer up for yourselves a burnt offering; and my servant Job shall pray for you: for him will I accept: lest I deal with you after your folly, in that ye have not spoken of me the thing which is right, like my servant Job.
[9] So Eliphaz the Temanite and Bildad the Shuhite and Zophar the Naamathite went, and did according as the LORD commanded them: the LORD also accepted Job.
[10] And the LORD turned the captivity of Job, when he prayed for his friends: also the LORD gave Job twice as much as he had before.
[11] Then came there unto him all his brethren, and all his sisters, and all they that had been of his acquaintance before, and did eat bread with him in his house: and they bemoaned him, and comforted him over all the evil that the LORD had brought upon him: every man also gave him a piece of money, and every one an earring of gold.
[12] So the LORD blessed the latter end of Job more than his beginning: for he had fourteen thousand sheep, and six thousand camels, and a thousand yoke of oxen, and a thousand she asses.
[13] He had also seven sons and three daughters.
[14] And he called the name of the first, Jemima; and the name of the second, Kezia; and the name of the third, Keren-happuch.
[15] And in all the land were no women found so fair as the daughters of Job: and their father gave them inheritance among their brethren.
[16] After this lived Job an hundred and forty years, and saw his sons, and his sons' sons, even four generations.
[17] So Job died, being old and full of days.



New Testament

"Seeing the crowds, he went up on the mountain, and when he sat down his disciples came to him.
And he opened his mouth and taught them, saying:
"Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
"Blessed are those who mourn, for they shall be comforted.
"Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth.
"Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they shall be satisfied.
"Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy.
"Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God.
"Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called sons of God.
"Blessed are those who are persecuted for righteousness' sake, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven." Gospel of Matthew, 5.1-10.

"But when you pray, go into your room and shut the door and pray to your Father who is in secret; and your Father who sees in secret will reward you." Gospel of Matthew, 6.1

"Our Father who art in heaven,
Hallowed be thy name.
Thy kingdom come.
Thy will be done,
On earth as it is in heaven.
Give us this day our daily bread;
And forgive us our debts,
As we also have forgiven our debtors;
And lead us not into temptation,
But deliver us from evil.
For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever. Amen." Gospel of Matthew, 6.9-13.

"And one of the scribes came up and heard them disputing with one another, and seeing that he [Jesus] answered them well, asked him, 'Which commandment is the first of all?' Jesus answered, 'The first is, "Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God is one; and you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength." The second is this, "You shall love your neighbor as yourself." There is no other commandment greater than these.'" Gospel of Mark, 12.28-31.

"And he [Jesus] called to him the multitude with his disciples, and said to them, 'If any man would come after me, let him deny himself and take up his cross and follow me. For whoever would save his life will lose it; and whoever loses his life for my sake and the gospel's will save it. For what does it profit a man, to gain the whole world and forfeit his life?'" Gospel of Mark, 8.34-36.

"And he [Jesus] said, 'What comes out of a man is what defiles a man. For from within, out of the heart of man, come evil thoughts, fornication, theft, murder, adultery, coveting, wickedness, deceit, licentiousness, envy, slander, pride, foolishness. All these evil things come from within, and they defile a man.'" Gospel of Mark, 7.21-22.

But he said to them, "I must preach the good news of the kingdom of God to the other cities also; for I was sent for this purpose." Gospel of Luke, 4.43

"And he lifted up his eyes on his disciples, and said: "Blessed are you poor, for yours is the kingdom of God.
"Blessed are you that hunger now, for you shall be satisfied. "Blessed are you that weep now, for you shall laugh.
"Blessed are you when men hate you, and when they exclude you and revile you, and cast out your name as evil, on account of the Son of man!
Rejoice in that day, and leap for joy, for behold, your reward is great in heaven; for so their fathers did to the prophets.
"But woe to you that are rich, for you have received your consolation.
"Woe to you that are full now, for you shall hunger. "Woe to you that laugh now, for you shall mourn and weep.
"Woe to you, when all men speak well of you, for so their fathers did to the false prophets.

"But I say to you that hear, Love your enemies, do good to those who hate you, bless those who curse you, pray for those who abuse you.
To him who strikes you on the cheek, offer the other also; and from him who takes away your coat do not withhold even your shirt.
Give to every one who begs from you; and of him who takes away your goods do not ask them again.
And as you wish that men would do to you, do so to them.
"If you love those who love you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners love those who love them.
And if you do good to those who do good to you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners do the same.
And if you lend to those from whom you hope to receive, what credit is that to you? Even sinners lend to sinners, to receive as much again.
But love your enemies, and do good, and lend, expecting nothing in return; and your reward will be great, and you will be sons of the Most High; for he is kind to the ungrateful and the selfish.
Be merciful, even as your Father is merciful.
"Judge not, and you will not be judged; condemn not, and you will not be condemned; forgive, and you will be forgiven; give, and it will be given to you; good measure, pressed down, shaken together, running over, will be put into your lap. For the measure you give will be the measure you get back." Gospel of Luke, 6.20-38

And I tell you, Ask, and it will be given you; seek, and you will find; knock, and it will be opened to you. For every one who asks receives, and he who seeks finds, and to him who knocks it will be opened. Gospel of Luke,11.9-10

But he said, "Blessed rather are those who hear the word of God and keep it!" Gospel of Luke, 11.28

"But woe to you Pharisees! for you tithe mint and rue and every herb, and neglect justice and the love of God; these you ought to have done, without neglecting the others. Gospel of Luke, 11.42

And he said to them, "Take heed, and beware of all covetousness; for a man's life does not consist in the abundance of his possessions." Gospel of Luke, 12.15

For where your treasure is, there will your heart be also. Gospel of Luke, 12.34

Every one to whom much is given, of him will much be required; and of him to whom men commit much they will demand the more. Gospel of Luke, 12.48

He said therefore, "What is the kingdom of God like? And to what shall I compare it? It is like a grain of mustard seed which a man took and sowed in his garden; and it grew and became a tree, and the birds of the air made nests in its branches." Gospel of Luke, 13.18-19

"No servant can serve two masters; for either he will hate the one and love the other, or he will be devoted to the one and despise the other. You cannot serve God and mammon." Gospel of Luke, 16.13

Being asked by the Pharisees when the kingdom of God was coming, he answered them, "The kingdom of God is not coming with signs to be observed; nor will they say, `Lo, here it is!' or `There!' for behold, the kingdom of God is in the midst of you." Gospel of Luke, 17.20-21

And Jesus said to him, "Why do you call me good? No one is good but God alone. You know the commandments: `Do not commit adultery, Do not kill, Do not steal, Do not bear false witness, Honor your father and mother.'" Gospel of Luke, 18.19-20

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God; all things were made through him, and without him was not anything made that was made.
In him was life, and the life was the light of men. The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness has not overcome it. John 1.1-5

Jesus answered, "Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter the kingdom of God. That which is born of the flesh is flesh, and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit. Do not marvel that I said to you, `You must be born anew.' The wind blows where it wills, and you hear the sound of it, but you do not know whence it comes or whither it goes; so it is with every one who is born of the Spirit." John, 3.5-8

For God so loved the world that he gave his only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish but have eternal life. For God sent the Son into the world, not to condemn the world, but that the world might be saved through him. He who believes in him is not condemned; he who does not believe is condemned already, because he has not believed in the name of the only Son of God. And this is the judgment, that the light has come into the world, and men loved darkness rather than light, because their deeds were evil. For every one who does evil hates the light, and does not come to the light, lest his deeds should be exposed. But he who does what is true comes to the light, that it may be clearly seen that his deeds have been wrought in God. John, 3.16-21

"God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth." John 4.24

Jesus said to them, "I am the bread of life; he who comes to me shall not hunger, and he who believes in me shall never thirst." John, 6.35

Jesus said to them, "Truly, truly, I say to you, before Abraham was, I am." John, 8.58

"I and the Father are one." John, 10.30

"The Father is in me and I am in the Father." John, 10.38

Jesus said to her, "I am the resurrection and the life; he who believes in me, though he die, yet shall he live, and whoever lives and believes in me shall never die." John, 11.25-26

Jesus wept. John, 11.35

"Truly, truly, I say to you, unless a grain of wheat falls into the earth and dies, it remains alone; but if it dies, it bears much fruit. He who loves his life loses it, and he who hates his life in this world will keep it for eternal life. If any one serves me, he must follow me; and where I am, there shall my servant be also; if any one serves me, the Father will honor him." John, 12.24-26

And Jesus cried out and said, "He who believes in me, believes not in me but in him who sent me.

"And he who sees me sees him who sent me. I have come as light into the world, that whoever believes in me may not remain in darkness.
If any one hears my sayings and does not keep them, I do not judge him; for I did not come to judge the world but to save the world.
He who rejects me and does not receive my sayings has a judge; the word that I have spoken will be his judge on the last day. For I have not spoken on my own authority; the Father who sent me has himself given me commandment what to say and what to speak. And I know that his commandment is eternal life. What I say, therefore, I say as the Father has bidden me." John, 12.44-50

A new commandment I give to you, that you love one another; even as I have loved you, that you also love one another. By this all men will know that you are my disciples, if you have love for one another." John, 13.34-35

"This is my commandment, that you love one another as I have loved you. Greater love has no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends. You are my friends if you do what I command you. No longer do I call you servants, for the servant does not know what his master is doing; but I have called you friends, for all that I have heard from my Father I have made known to you. You did not choose me, but I chose you and appointed you that you should go and bear fruit and that your fruit should abide; so that whatever you ask the Father in my name, he may give it to you. This I command you, to love one another. John, 15.12-17



The Whispered Prayer of the Beseechers

In the Name of God, the All-merciful, the All-compassionate

My God,
though my stores for travelling to Thee are few,
my confidence in Thee has given me a good opinion.
Though my sin has made me fear Thy punishment,
my hope has let me feel secure from Thy vengeance.
Though my misdeed has exposed me to Thy penalty,
my excellent trust has apprised me of Thy reward.
Though heedlessness has put to sleep my readiness to meet Thee,
knowledge has awakened me to Thy generosity and boons.
Though excessive disobedience and rebellion
have estranged me from Thee,
the glad tidings of forgiveness and good pleasure
have made me feel intimate with Thee.
I ask Thee by
the splendours of Thy face
and the lights of Thy holiness,
and I implore Thee by
the tenderness of Thy mercy
and the gentleness of Thy goodness,
to verify my opinion in expecting
Thy great generosity
and Thy beautiful favour,
through nearness to Thee,
proximity with Thee,
and enjoyment of gazing upon Thee!
Here am I,
addressing myself to the breezes
of Thy freshness and tenderness,
having recourse to the rain
of Thy generosity and gentleness,
fleeing from Thy displeasure to Thy good pleasure
and from Thee to Thee,
hoping for the best of what is with Thee,
relying upon Thy gifts,
utterly poor toward Thy guarding!
My God,
Thy bounty which Thou hast begun - complete it!
Thy generosity which Thou hast given me - strip it not away!
Thy cover over me through Thy clemency - tear it not away!
My ugly acts which Thou hast come to know - forgive them!
My God,
I seek intercession from Thee with Thee,
and I seek sanctuary in Thee from Thee!
I have come to Thee
craving Thy beneficence,
desiring Thy kindness,
seeking water from the deluge of Thy graciousness,
begging rain from the clouds of Thy bounty,
requesting Thy good pleasure,
going straight to Thy side,
arriving at the watering-place of Thy support,
seeking exalted good things from Thy quarter,
reaching for the presence of Thy beauty,
wanting Thy face,
knocking at Thy door,
abasing myself before Thy mightiness and majesty!
So act toward me with the forgiveness and mercy
of which Thou art worthy!
Act not toward me with the chastisement and vengeance
of which I am worthy!
By Thy mercy,
O Most Merciful of the merciful!


The Whispered Prayer of the Lovers

In the Name of God, the All-merciful,
the All-compassionate

My God,
who can have tasted the sweetness of Thy love,
then wanted another in place of Thee?
Who can have become intimate with Thy nearness,
then sought removal from Thee?
My God, place us with him
whom Thou hast
chosen for Thy nearness and Thy friendship,
purified through Thy affection and Thy love,
given yearning for the meeting with Thee,
made pleased with Thy decree,
granted gazing upon Thy face,
shown the favour of Thy good pleasure,
given refuge from separation from Thee and Thy loathing,
settled in a sure sitting place in Thy neighbourhood,
singled out for true knowledge of Thee,
made worthy for worship of Thee,
whose heart Thou hast captivated with Thy will,
whom Thou hast picked for contemplating Thee,
whose look Thou hast made empty for Thee,
whose breast Thou hast freed for Thy love,
whom Thou hast made
desirous of what is with Thee,
inspired with Thy remembrance,
allotted thanksgiving to Thee,
occupied with obeying Thee,
turned into one of Thy righteous creatures,
chosen for whispered prayer to Thee,
and from whom Thou hast cut off all things
which cut him off from Thee!
O God,
place us among those
whose habit is rejoicing in Thee and yearning for Thee,
whose time is spent in sighing and moaning!
Their foreheads are bowed down before Thy mightiness,
their eyes wakeful in Thy service,
their tears flowing in dread of Thee,
their hearts fixed upon Thy love,
their cores shaken with awe of Thee.
O He
the lights of whose holiness
induce wonder in the eyes of His lovers,
the glories of whose face
arouse the longing of the hearts of His knowers!
O Furthest Wish of the hearts of the yearners!
O Utmost Limit of the hopes of the lovers!
I ask from Thee love for Thee,
love for those who love Thee,
love for every work which will join me to Thy nearness,
and that Thou makest Thyself more beloved to me
than anything other than Thee
and makest
my love for Thee
lead to Thy good pleasure,
and my yearning for Thee
protect against disobeying Thee!
Oblige me by allowing me to gaze upon Thee,
gaze upon me with the eye of affection and tenderness,
turn not Thy face away from me,
and make me one of the people of happiness with Thee
and favoured position!
O Responder,
O Most Merciful of the merciful!



Lao Tzu



Confucius, Analects. Tr by James Legge



CHAPTER I. 1. The Master said, “Is it not pleasant to learn with a constant perseverance and application?
2. “Is it not delightful to have friends coming from distant quarters?”
3. “Is he not a man of complete virtue, who feels no discomposure though men may take no note of him?”
CHAP. II. 1. The philosopher Yu said, “They are few who, being filial and fraternal, are fond of offending against their superiors. There have been none, who, not liking to offend against their superiors, have been fond of stirring up confusion.
2. “The superior man bends his attention to what is radical [at root]. That being established, all practical courses naturally grow up. Filial piety and fraternal submission!— are they not the root of all benevolent actions?”
CHAP. III. The Master said, “Fine words and an insinuating appearance are seldom associated with true virtue.”
CHAP. IV. The philosopher Tsang said, “I daily examine myself on three points:— whether, in transacting business for others, I may have been not faithful;— whether, in intercourse with friends, I may have been not sincere;— whether I may have not mastered and practised the instructions of my teacher.”
CHAP. V. The Master said, To rule a country of a thousand chariots, there must be reverent attention to business, and sincerity; economy in expenditure, and love for men; and the
employment of the people at the proper seasons.”
CHAP. VI. The Master said, “A youth, when at home, should be filial, and, abroad, respectful to his elders. He should be earnest and truthful. He should overflow in love to all, and cultivate the friendship of the good. When he has time and opportunity, after the performance of these things, he should employ them in polite studies.”
CHAP. VII. Tsze-hsia said, “If a man withdraws his mind from the love of beauty, and applies it as sincerely to the love of the virtuous; if, in serving his parents, he can exert his utmost strength; if, in serving his prince, he can devote his life; if, in his intercourse with his friends, his words are sincere:— although men say that he has not learned, I will certainly say that he has.”
CHAP. VIII. 1. The Master said, “If the scholar be not grave, he will not call forth any veneration, and his learning will not be solid.
2. “Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles.
3. “Have no friends not equal to yourself.
4. “When you have faults, do not fear to abandon them.”
CHAP. IX. The philosopher Tsang said, “Let there be a careful attention to perform the funeral rites to parents, and let them be followed when long gone with the ceremonies of sacrifice;— then the virtue of the people will resume its proper excellence.”
CHAP. X. 1. Tsze-Ch’ in asked Tsze-kung, saying, “When our master comes to any country, he does not fail to learn all about its government. Does he ask his information? or is it given to him?”
2. Tsze-kung said, “Our master is benign, upright, courteous, temperate, and complaisant, and thus he gets his information. The master’s mode of asking information!— is it not different from that of other men?”
CHAP. XI. The Master said, “While a man’s father is alive, look at the bent of his will; when his father is dead, look at his conduct. If for three years he does not alter from the way of his father, he may be called filial.”
CHAP. XII. 1. The philosopher Yu said, “In practising the rules of propriety, a natural ease is to be prized. In the ways prescribed by the ancient kings, this is the excellent quality, and in things small and great we follow them.
2. “Yet it is not to be observed in all cases. If one, knowing how such ease should be prized, manifests it, without regulating it by the rules of propriety, this likewise is not to be done.”
CHAP. XIII. The philosopher Yu said, “When agreements are made according to what is right, what is spoken can be made good. When respect is shown according to what is proper, one keeps far from shame and disgrace. When the parties upon whom a man leans are proper persons to be intimate with, he can make them his guides and masters.”
CHAP. XIV. The Master said, “He who aims to be a man of complete virtue in his food does not seek to gratify his appetite, nor in his dwelling place does he seek the appliances of ease; he is earnest in what he is doing, and careful in his speech; he frequents the company of men of principle that he may be rectified:— such a person may be said indeed to love to learn.”
CHAP. XV. 1. Tsze-kung said, “What do you pronounce concerning the poor man who yet does not flatter, and the rich man who is not proud?” The Master replied, “They will do; but they are not equal to him, who, though poor, is yet cheerful, and to him, who, though rich, loves the rules of propriety.”
2. Tsze-kung replied, “It is said in the Book of Poetry, "As you cut and then file, as you carve and then polish."— The meaning is the same, I apprehend, as that which you have just expressed.”
3. The Master said, “With one like Ts’ze, I can begin to talk about the odes. I told him one point, and he knew its proper sequence.”
CHAP. XVI. The Master said, “I will not be afflicted at men’s not knowing me; I will be afflicted that I do not know men.”


CHAP. I. The Master said, “He who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star, which keeps its place and all the stars turn towards it.”
CHAP. II. The Master said, “In the Book of Poetry are three hundred pieces, but the design of them all may be embraced in one sentence— ‘Having no depraved thoughts.’ ”
CHAP. III. 1. The Master said, “If the people be led by laws, and uniformity sought to be given them by punishments, they will try to avoid the punishment, but have no sense of shame.
2. “If they be led by virtue, and uniformity sought to be given them by the rules of propriety, they will have the sense of shame, and moreover will become good.”
CHAP. IV. 1. The Master said, “At fifteen, I had my mind bent on learning.
2. “At thirty, I stood firm.
3. “At forty, I had no doubts.
4. “At fifty, I knew the decrees of Heaven.
5. “At sixty, my ear was an obedient organ for the reception of truth.
6. “At seventy, I could follow what my heart desired, without transgressing what was right.”
CHAP. V. 1. Mang I asked what filial piety was. The Master said, “It is not being disobedient.”
2. Soon after, as Fan Ch’ih was driving him, the Master told him, saying, “Mang-sun asked me what filial piety was, and I answered him,— ‘not being disobedient.’ ”
3. Fan Ch’ih said, “What did you mean?” The Master replied, “That parents, when alive, be served according to propriety; that, when dead, they should be buried according to propriety; and that they should be sacrificed to according to propriety.”
CHAP. VI. Mang Wu asked what filial piety was. The Master said, “Parents are anxious lest their children should be sick.”
CHAP. VII. Tsze-yu asked what filial piety was. The Master said, “The filial piety of now-a-days means the support of one’s parents. But dogs and horses likewise are able to do something in the way of support;— without reverence, what is there to distinguish the one support given from the other?”
CHAP. VIII. Tsze-hsia asked what filial piety was. The Master said, “The difficulty is with the countenance. If, when their elders have any troublesome affairs, the young take the toil of them, and if, when the young have wine and food, they set them before their elders, is THIS to be considered filial piety?”
CHAP. IX. The Master said, “I have talked with Hui for a whole day, and he has not made any objection to anything I said;— as if he were stupid. He has retired, and I have examined his conduct when away from me, and found him able to illustrate my teachings. Hui!— He is not stupid.”
CHAP. X. 1. The Master said, “See what a man does.
2. “Mark his motives.
3. “Examine in what things he rests.
4. “How can a man conceal his character?
5. How can a man conceal his character?”
CHAP. XI. The Master said, “If a man keeps cherishing his old knowledge, so as continually to be acquiring new, he may be a teacher of others.”
CHAP. XII. The Master said, “The accomplished scholar is not a utensil.”
CHAP. XIII. Tsze-kung asked what constituted the superior man. The Master said, “He acts before he speaks, and afterwards speaks according to his actions.”
CHAP. XIV. The Master said, “The superior man is catholic and no partisan. The mean man is partisan and not catholic.”
CHAP. XV. The Master said, “Learning without thought is labour lost; thought without learning is perilous.”
CHAP. XVI. The Master said, “The study of strange doctrines is injurious indeed!”
CHAP. XVII. The Master said, “Yu, shall I teach you what knowledge is? When you know a thing, to hold that you know it; and when you do not know a thing, to allow that you do not know it;— this is knowledge.”
CHAP. XVII. 1. Tsze-chang was learning with a view to official emolument.
2. The Master said, “Hear much and put aside the points of which you stand in doubt, while you speak cautiously at the same time of the others:— then you will afford few occasions for blame. See much and put aside the things which seem perilous, while you are cautious at the same time in carrying the others into practice:— then you will have few occasions for repentance. When one gives few occasions for blame in his words, and few occasions for
repentance in his conduct, he is in the way to get emolument.”
CHAP. XIX. The Duke Ai asked, saying, “What should be done in order to secure the submission of the people?” Confucius replied, “Advance the upright and set aside the crooked, then the people will submit. Advance the crooked and set aside the upright, then the people will not submit.”
CHAP. XX. Chi K’ang asked how to cause the people to reverence their ruler, to be faithful to him, and to go on to nerve themselves to virtue. The Master said, “Let him preside over them
with gravity;— then they will reverence him. Let him be filial and kind to all;— then they will be faithful to him. Let him advance the good and teach the incompetent;— then they will eagerly seek to be virtuous.”
CHAP. XXI. 1. Some one addressed Confucius, saying, “Sir, why are you not engaged in the government?”
2. The Master said, “What does the Shu-ching say of filial piety?— ‘You are filial, you discharge your brotherly duties. These qualities are displayed in government.’ This then also constitutes the exercise of government. Why must there be THAT— making one be in the government?”
CHAP. XXII. The Master said, “I do not know how a man without truthfulness is to get on. How can a large carriage be made to go without the cross-bar for yoking the oxen to, or a small
carriage without the arrangement for yoking the horses?”
CHAP. XXIII. 1. Tsze-chang asked whether the affairs of ten ages after could be known.
2. Confucius said, “The Yin dynasty followed the regulations of the Hsia: wherein it took from or added to them may be known. The Chau dynasty has followed the regulations of Yin: wherein it took from or added to them may be known. Some other may follow the Chau, but though it should be at the distance of a hundred ages, its affairs may be known.”
CHAP. XXIV. 1. The Master said, “For a man to sacrifice to a spirit which does not belong to him is flattery.
2. “To see what is right and not to do it is want of courage.”



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